Grammar-teaching:Explicit Vs Implicit

What is grammar   
Grammar means the rules which change forms of the words within senternces. This concept also means the ways that words are put together in order to make sentences or phrases.
Nunan and Carter (2001) say that there are two main kinds of descriptive grammars, formal and functional. Formal grammar take the form of language with less attention given to meaning or language use.
On the other hand, "functional grammars conversely show language as largely social interaction seeking to explain why one linguistic form is more appropriate than another in satisfying a particular communicative purpose in a particular content". Nunan and carter (2001:34)
Grammar includes syntax which means sentence structure, morphology, meaning and function.

Grammar-teaching
Different teachers have different attitudes toward the way of grammar-teaching. However most teachers believe that grammar-teaching is important. This importance is ensured by many authors because it has may benefits. Howatt, A. P. R. (1984) states that the main purpose of grammar-teaching is to help language learners see how the foreign languages work, so that learners can handle progressively more different texts.
Cameron, L. (2201) says "grammar is necessary to express precise meaning of discourse. This necessity appears when grammar ties into vocabulary in learning foreign languages. It also can evolve from the learning of chunks of language. Grammar also can be taught without technical labels. As a relation to this, Brown, H. D. (1994) says that to teach or not to teach grammar depend on age, proficiency level, educational background, language skills, needs and goals.

Grammar-teaching approaches: Explicit Vs Implicit
There are two different approaches of grammar-teaching, explicit and implicit. Explicit means expressed or shown clearly and openly without any attempt to hide anything. In grammar-teaching Bialystok, E. (1978) defines explicit as an approach contains all the conscious facts the learner has about the language and the criterion for admission to this category in the ability to articulate facts. Explicit approach can help to generate new language. It encourages learners to make sentences, follow patterns and establish structures for learning. It clarifies meaning and encourages to notice. Faerch, C. (1986) says that in this approach learners can describe rules in their own words. They also can descried rules in metalinguistic terms.
On the other hand, implicit means something expressed in an indirect way. In grammar-teaching it defined by Bialystok as a kind of linguistic knowledge which means intuitive information upon which the language learner operates in order to produce responses in the target language. In this approach learner uses but does not reflect on the rule. S/he can decide the speech is or is not in accordance with rule.

Deductive Vs Inductive
Deductive and inductive are two concepts witch describe the two ways of encouraging learners to notice grammar. Deductive way applies a general rule to particular instances while inductive way involves inference from the particular to the general. Deductive learning occurs when teacher gives the rule in an explicit way and then encourages learners to apply it by giving examples and leads them to practice. While inductive learning works differently by giving examples in order to get learners notice the rules.

References:
1. Bialystok, E. (1978). A Theoretical Model Of Second Language Learning
2. Brown. H. D. (1994). Teaching By Principles: An Interactive Approach To Language Pedagogy. London: Prentice Hall.
3. Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching Language To Young Learners. Cambridge: C.U.P
4. Faerch, C. (1986). Rules Of Thumb And Other Teacher-Formulated Rules In The Foreign Language Classroom. In G. Kasper (Ed) Learning Teaching And Communication In The Foreign Language Classroom. Arthus University Press.
5. Howatt, A. P. R. (1984). Language Teaching Traditions. ELT Journal. Volume 38/4 October 1984
6. Nunan, D. And Carter, R. (2001). Teaching English To Speakers Of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

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